for example in the sentence " wait up! " ...or " he told me to shut all tasks off"

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Single units, such as up, off, over, down, under, for etc are prepositions.

Combined with the verbs, they add different meanings to them.

Such verbs become phrasal verbs: turn off/on, put out, get over, break up with, come up with, go through etc

e.g. You may switch the light off now. I must turn my computer on in order to use it. He came up with a brilliant idea. I broke up with my boyfriend last week.



they are prepositions

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