Next (adj) - only before noun. 1) (usually with the) coming straight after somebody/something in time, order or space: The next train to Baltimore is at ten. The next six months will be the hardest. The next chapter. Who's is next? The woman in the next room. 2) (used without the) - Monday, week, summer, year, etc. Next Thrusday is 12 April. Next time I'll bring a book.
Next (adv) 1) after something else; then; afterwards: What happened next? Next, I heard the sound of voices. 2) next best, biggest, most important, etc ... (after/to somebody/something) following in the order mentioned: Jo was the next oldest after Martin. The next best thing to flying is gliding. 3) used in questions to express surprise or confusion: You're going bungee jumping? Whatever next?
Next (noun) (usually the next) - a person or thing that is next: One moment he wasn't there, the next he was. The week after next.
Near (adj near, nearer, nearest) near and nearer do not usually go before a noun; nearest can go either before or after a noun. 1) a short distance away - (syn - close): His house is very near. Where's the nearest bank? 2) a short time away in the future: The conflit is unlikely to be resolved in the near future (=very soon) 3) coming next after somebody/something. She has a 12-point lead over her nearest rival. 4) (usually nearest) similar; most similar: He was the nearest thing to (= the person most like) a father she had ever had. 5) (only before noun) (no comparative or superlative) close to being somebody/something: The election proved to be a near disaster for the party. A near impossibility. 6) nearest relative/relation used to describe a close family connection: Only the nearest relatives were present at the funeral.
Near (adv. near, nearer, nearest) 1) at a short distance away. A bomb exploded somewhere near. she took a step nearer. Visitors came from near and far. 2) a short time away in the future. The exams are drawing near. 3) (especially in compounds) almost: A near-perfect performance. I'm as near certain as can be.
Near (prep. also near to, nearer to, nearest to) - Near to is not usually used before the name of a place, person, festival, etc. 1) at a short distance away from somebody/something: Do you live near here? Go and sit nearer (to) the fire. 2) a short period of time from something: My birthday is very near Christmas. I'll think about it nearer (to) the time (=when it is just going to happen) 3) used before a number to mean "approximately", just below or above: Share prices are near their record high of last year. Profits fell from $11 million to nearer $8 million. 4) similar to somebody/something in quality, size, etc. Nobody else comes near her in intellect. He's nearer 70 than 60. This colour is nearest (to) the original. 5) doing sth close to a particular state: A state near (to) death. She was near to tears (=almost crying). We came near to being killed.
Near (verb) near something (rather formal) to come close to something in time or space (syn approach) The project is nearing completion. She was nearing the end of her life. We neared the top of the hill. As Christmas neared, the children became more and more excited.
Near/close - The adjectives near and close are often the same in meaning, but in some phrases only one of them may be used: the near future - a near neighbour - a near miss - a close contest - a close encounter - a close call.
Close - is more often used to describe a relationship between people: a close friend - close family - close links. You do not usually use near in this way.
Both near and nearby/near by mean 'close (by)', 'at only a little distance in space or time'.
'Near' as an adverb can be used as follows: the shops were near at hand; the bus station was nearer than the railway station; their wedding anniversary is quite near.
'Near' as a preposition: bring your chair near the fire; phone me again nearer the day when you want to see me; he was near his end (approaching death).
'Nearby' can be used as an adjective: the nearby house was for sale, or an adverb: their friends lived nearby/near by.
PS: "nearby" cannot be used as a preposition, but "near" can.